Theories of Multiculturalism

The term of multicultural originally referred to the context of the Canadian State; it thus was first popularized to equal to pluralism conception around the 1950s (Harto, 2012). The word "multicultural" is two sets of words, namely multi which means many (Indonesian Dictionary/KBI, 2008); it is similar to plural and diversity (Harto, 2012; Suryana and Rusdiana, 2015; Truna, 2010). Indonesian Dictionary/ KBI, (2008) mention culture is a Latin (cultural); which means {ensemble des aspects intellectuels d’une civilization ); it also a series of intellectual arena of a civilization (Purwasito, 2015). 

Thus, multiculturalism can be interpreted as cultural diversity or cultural diversity. Multiculturalism is sometimes referred to a philosophy and an ideology that require the existence of unity from various cultural groups with the same rights and social political status in modern society. The term multiculturalism is also often used to describe the unity of different ethnic groups in a country (Suryana and Rusdiana, 2015). Another equivalent word to multiculturalism is plurality, which means plural; more than one (KBI, 2008). Pluralism is a coexistence of various groups or beliefs at a time with the maintenance of differences and characteristics of each (Thoha, 2005).

 The term pluralism has been known before the term multiculturalism emerged (Truna, 2010). The concept of pluralism is the forerunner of the emergence of the term multicultural. The issue of religious pluralism then developed into the issue of multiculturalism (Truna, 2010). Multiculturalism acknowledges the diversity. No country contains only a single national culture. Multicultural exits in every nation-state in the world (Baidhawy, 2005). There is no way to close, avoid, and even more extreme prevents and blocks the need for contact. Modern nation-state life is characterized by the existence of relations, communication and involvement in togetherness activities. This has led to interaction, even intercultural duplication. Thus humans are not only different in physical reality, but also different in ideas, ideas, beliefs, and religion (Effendi, 2001).

In the Indonesian context, multicultural or with other terms mention pluralism (pluralism) is interpreted as diversity or diversity. Diversity is not only a social reality but as ideas, understandings, thoughts. Diversity has been going on for centuries, long before this country was formed. The 1945 Constitution, as a constitution, also states clearly in article 29 paragraph 2 (Ghazali, 2009). It is on this basis that all citizens with diverse cultural identities, ethnicities, sexes, religions, etc. must be protected by the State. The community movement in America is to demand equality of civil rights in the 1960s (Zamroni, 2013). Beginning with a black group that had been freed from slavery after the civil war, but this group never gained social and political rights equality. Thus the civil society movement was followed by women in the 1970s and "other colored people". In the 1980s, multiculturalism was introduced to challenge the dominance of WASP culture in various fields, including education, language, history, and cultural expression in mass media and literature (Harto, 2012). If the essence of multiculturalism is to help develop the ability to recognize, accept, appreciate, and celebrate cultural diversity (Aly, 2011), then this has been around since the beginning of the emergence of Islam on the surface of the earth. Imam Sayuthy found equality without skin colors the Qur'anic verse (asbab annuzul) Surah al-Hujarat [49]: 13 which states that human values lie in the attitude of piety in his heart, not because of skin color, tribal status and nationality possessed is when Bilal bin Rabah, a former black slave rose above the Ka'bah to announce the voice of the call to prayer, then the people who saw ridicule him, then Allah rebuked them with the verse (Sayuthy, 2002).

There are a number of passages from the Qur'an that teach the importance of recognizing, respecting and being fair regardless of religious, cultural, ethnic or racial backgrounds. Likewise with the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad who noted how respect for followers of different religions and cultures as depicted in the Medina charter in the year 1 Hijrah or around 624 AD, as well as the alWada sermon 'delivered by the Prophet Muhammad at Arafat in 10 Hijri or around 634 AD. The core values of multicultural education are in the form of democracy, humanity, and plurality (pluralism). Democracy is a comprehensive term in all forms; both justice of culture- political and social justice. Human values (humanism) show that humans are basically creatures that need plurality, heterogeneity and diversity. The diversity can be in the form of ideology, religion, paradigm, ethnicity, mindset, needs, economic level, etc. (Suryana and Rusdiana, 2015). 

Humanity which is used as an orientation point by multicultural education can be understood as a value that places an increase in human development, its existence and dignity as the highest human thoughts and actions (Aly, 2011). The value of plurality (pluralism) is a view that recognizes the existence of diversity in a nation, such as in Indonesia. The term plural contains various types of meanings, but pluralism does not mean merely recognition of it, but has political, social, and economic implications. Therefore, pluralism is related to democratic principles. Many countries declare themselves to be democratic countries, but do not recognize the existence of pluralism in their lives so that various types of segregation occur. Pluralism concerns the rights of life of the community groups within a community (Suryana and Rusdiana, 2015). 

In the Islamic perspective, multicultural education which is principled on democratic, equality and justice is apparently compatible with Islamic doctrines and historical experience of Muslims (Aly,2011). The Islamic teachings that contain democratic principles, equality, and justice, among others, are found in the Qur'an surah Al-Shura [42]: 38; Al-Hadid [57]: 25; and al-A'raf [7]: 181. "And (for) those who accept (obey) the call of their Lord and establish prayer, while their affairs (are decided) by deliberation between them; and they spend part of the sustenance we give them. "(Surah Al-Shura [42]: 25), "Indeed, we have sent our Apostles by bringing tangible evidence and We have sent down with them the Book and the balance sheet (justice) so that people can carry out justice. And we created iron in which a place of great strength and various benefits for mankind, (so that they might use iron) and so that God would know who helped (His religion) and His apostles when Allah did not see him. Indeed, Allah is Strong, Mighty. "(Surah Al-Hadid, [57]: 25) "And among the people we created there are people who give instructions with rights, and with those rights (also) they carry out justice." (QS. Al-A'raf [7]: 181) 

This diversity can present challenges and opportunities for nations, educational institutions and educators. Multicultural education can minimize problems that arise and can maximize opportunities. An important goal of multicultural education is to help educators minimize problems related to diversity and to maximize the opportunities and possibilities of their education. To respond creatively and effectively to diversity, education educators and administrators need sophistication in understanding concepts, principles, theories, and practices in multicultural education. They also need to check and clarify race or ethnicity. In addition, the development of pedagogical knowledge and skills is needed to work effectively with students from diverse races, ethnicities, cultures, genders, social classes, and religious groups (Banks, 2017).

Sumber: international journal Advance Science and  Technology

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